What is a structural economic policy?
Structural economic policy is the set of actions implemented by the public authorities to transform the economic system in order to improve its functioning. It aims to ensure the sustainable growth and competitiveness of the national economy. It is medium to long term.
In the European Union, there are two categories of structural policies: national structural policies and EU structural policies.
Since the implementation of the “Lisbon strategy”, national structural policies have been framed and coordinated for greater consistency. These policies are coordinated through the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs).
What are the main national structural policies?
National structural policies aim to increase production possibilities, direct activity towards sectors of the future, strengthen competition through regulation and set up independent regulatory authorities.
In France, the main structural policies are:
Industrial policy favors sectors considered strategic, support for SMEs, etc.
The energy policy seeks to develop renewable and non-polluting energies
The research and innovation policy finances R&D and the development of new technologies
The training policy seeks to develop human capital
The regional planning policy aims to correct disparities between regions, to develop transport and communication infrastructures, etc.
What are the main structural policies in the European Union?
The structural policies of the European Union aim to remove economic obstacles to growth and to improve the functioning of markets by strengthening competition.
The key areas of structural policy at European level are agriculture, competition, social issues and the environment:
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) aims to protect European agriculture by ensuring Europe’s food independence and the maintenance of its natural heritage.
Competition policy seeks to defend the interests of European consumers, to fight against monopolies and anti-competitive practices (agreements, abuse of a dominant position).
Social policy aims to avoid, at European level, the downward harmonization of tax rates and social security contributions.
Environmental policy seeks to combat pollution, prevent risks and protect biodiversity in the EU.